Blood loss is a major cause of early deaths after trauma, accounting for 51% of the deaths occurring during the initial 48 hours after hospital admission. Decisions made in the early treatment of severe blood loss have important consequences for patient survival and length of time in the Intensive Care Unit. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a key component of the management in acute haemorrhagic shock, based on the assumption that transfused RBCs improve delivery of oxygen to the tissues. However existing evidence suggests this may not be the case. Recent studies suggest however that transfusion of older blood may worsen both morbidity and mortality in certain patient subgroups. The aetiology behind this association shown in this retrospective study is unclear, but seems related to an alteration in risk/benefit profile of old vs new blood. Hence, this project will investigate the ability of typical fluids used in haemorrhagic shock in ED departments to improve oxygen delivery to vital organs following severe haemorrhage.
i. In looking at biomarkers to measure haemorrhagic shock, the research team concluded that the measurement of serum lactate and other global markers underestimate the severity of end organ hypoxia and hypoperfusion in haemorrhagic shock.
ii. Transfusion of selenium-poor packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions can dilute selenium levels and compromise glutathione peroxidase antioxidant activity and thereby allow lipid peroxidation. As there was no evidence that aged PRBC induced more severe oxidative injury this suggests that selenium dilution is a key underlying mechanism.
iii. Transfusion of stored ovine blood induced (1) transient pulmonary arterial hypertension but no oedema and (2) reduced fibrinogen levels more than fresh blood, but neither induced coagulopathy. Thus, transfusion of stored blood affected pulmonary function even in the absence of overt organ injury.
iv. The team also demonstrated the utility of the ovine model for future blood transfusion studies and highlight the importance of compatibility testing in animal models involving homologous transfusions.
- Staib A., Collier J., Fung Y.L., Do H.L., Thom O., Dunster K., Fraser J.F., "What are the best markers of essential tissue hypoperfusion in haemorrhagic shock?", 28th Australasian College for Emergency Medicine Annual Scientific Meeting, 2011; 24(1):18
- Fung,Y.L., Tung J.P., Foley S.R., Thom O., Staib A., Dunster k.R., Solano C., Shekar K., Chew M.S., Fraser J.F., "Stored blood transfusion induces transient pulmonary arterial hypertension without impairing coagulation in an ovine model of nontraumatic haemorrhage", Vox Sanguinis, 2013; 105(2):150-158
- Simonova G., Tung J. P., Fraser J. F. , Do H. L. , Staib A. ,Chew M. S. , Dunster K. R. , Glenister K. M. , Jackson D. E. and Fung Y. L., "A comprehensive ovine model of blood transfusion", Vox Sanguinis, 2013;106,(2):153-160.
- McDonald C.I., Fraser, J.F., Shekar K., Dunster K. R., Thom O., Fung Y.L., "Transfusion of packed red blood cells reduces selenium levels and increases lipid peroxidation in an in vivo ovine model", Transfusion Medicine, 2014; 24(1):50-54
-Y. L. Fung, G. Simonova and J.‐P. Tung, Lessons from sheep models of transfusion, ISBT Science Series, 11, S2, (73-78), (2016)
-Fung Y.L., Do H.L., Tung J., Collier J., Fraser J.F., "A validated ovine model for blood collection, processing, compatibility testing and transfusion", 22nd Regional Congress of the ISBT, Asia, Nov 19 - 23, 2011,Taiwan
- Fung YL, Foley R., Varzeshi M., Simonava G., Do H.L., Staib A., Fraser J.F., "Red cell and albumin resuscitation following acute massive haemorrhage alters haemostasis", 22nd Regional Congress of the ISBT, Asia, Nov 19 - 23, 2011, Taiwan
- Fung YL, McDonald Cl., Thom O., Fraser J.F., "Transfusion of fresh or aged red cells after haemorrhagic shock reduces selenium and glutathione peroxidase", 22nd Regional Congress of the ISBT, Asia, Nov 19 - 23, 2011, Taiwan
- Foley R., Fung Y.L., Varzeshi M., Simonava G., Do h.L.,Staib A., Fraser J.F., "Massive Haemorrhage and Transfusions each change Coagulation Plasma Factors," Australia New Zealand Intensive Care Society Annual Scientific Meeting, 2011
Dr Andrew Staib
Dr James Collier
Dr Lin Fung
Dr Paul McMurray
Dr Kathryn Colebourne
Dr Adrian Barnett
Mr Kimble Dunster
Mr John-Paul Tung
Prof John Fraser