Decompression sickness (DCS), commonly called the bends, involves formation of gas bubbles in the body following scuba diving. These bubbles can cause a variety of problems, ranging from minor aches and pain, to severe stroke-like symptoms. Providing pre-hospital oxygen therapy at the highest concentration possible provides needed oxygen to body tissues, reduces bubbles and can often relieve symptoms. Oxygen has been shown to reduce the number of hyperbaric treatments a diver with DCS will require so improving pre-hospital oxygen delivery will lead to decreased hospital costs. However, the ideal oxygen delivery system has not been determined.
Using new techniques and equipment, this research will identify the optimal device for delivering oxygen to divers with DCS leading to recommendations which will improve the health outcomes of injured divers. We will measure how effectively varied breathing devices deliver oxygen to the body tissues and remove bubbles from the diver’s blood while assessing innovative equipment. This study will assess a new commercially available oral mask to improve oxygen delivery with a demand system. A medical oxygen re-breather, which like an anaesthetic machine absorbs carbon dioxide and adds small amounts of oxygen to the breathing circuit, will be also assessed.
Assessing the use of these devices will not only determine their efficacy to deliver oxygen to injured divers but also provide guidance on appropriate systems to use for dive operators with limited medical oxygen. Assessing the change in bubble grade with oxygen delivery will add evidence for its use. This research will provide information that can guide pre-hospital and emergency clinicians when choosing the type of oxygen delivery devices used for injured divers improving patient outcomes and decreasing costs.
- Australian Diving Safety Foundation, 2019, $20,398
- Blake, D.F., Crowe, M., Lindsay, D., Brouff, A., Mitchell, S.J., Leggat, P.A., Pollock, N.W., 2020. Comparison of tissue oxygenation achieved breathing oxygen using different delivery devices and flow rates. Diving and hyperbaric medicine, 50(1), p.34-42.
- Blake, D.F., Crowe, M., Lindsay, D., Brouff, A., Mitchell, S.J., Pollock, N.W., 2018. Comparison of tissue oxygenation achieved breathing oxygen from a demand valve with four different mask configurations. Diving and hyperbaric medicine, 48(4), p.209-217.
- Blake, D.F., Young, D.A., Brown, L.H., 2018. Transcutaneous oximetry: variability in normal values for the upper and lower limb. Diving and hyperbaric medicine, 48(1), p.2-9.
- Brouff, A., Comparison of tissue oxygenation achieved breathing oxygen from a demand valve using four different mask configurations. Hyperbaric Technicians and Nurses Association 27th Annual Scientific Meeting on Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine, Sydney, Aug 2019.
- A comparison of the tissue oxygenation achieved breathing oxygen from a demand valve with four different mask configurations. Remote Area Dive, dive club evening education seminar, April 2019.
- A comparison of the tissue oxygenation achieved breathing oxygen from a demand valve with four different mask configurations. CSIRO/JCU Science with sushi seminar, October 2018.
- Blake, D., A comparison of the tissue oxygenation achieved breathing oxygen from a demand valve with four different mask configurations. JCU Cohort Doctoral Conference, July 2018.
- Guest speaker, Coral Sea dive medicine conference, 7-11 December, 2017.
- Mayo Clinic diving medicine CME Cozumel, Mexico, May 2023.
- Oxygen delivery devices. Commercial Diving Institute of Canada, Kelowna, BC, February 2023.
- Blake, D.F., Scientific diver safety and Australian standards (panel discussion). Diving for Science and Humanity: a one-day workshop, Adelaide, 21 Sep 2022.
- Comparison of tissue oxygenation achieved breathing oxygen using different delivery devices and flow rates. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) Science seminar series, Townsville, 20 February 2020.
- Diving hazards and medical assessment. TM5512 Travel Medicine course JCU, October 2018.
- Mauricio Moreno, SSS Recompression Network. Hyperbaric units, Cozumel and Playa del Carmen, Mexico. 2018.
Dr Denise Blake
Dr Melissa Crowe
Dr Daniel Lindsay
Ms Annie Brouff
Prof Simon J Mitchell
A/Prof Neal W Pollock
Prof Peter A Leggat